Outranking every local authority, his legates intervened freely in internal diocesan affairs throughout Latin Christendom. Their obligations included fealty to the pope and his successors as well as military and financial aid. One of the greatest medieval popes, later canonized, he was a man of intense conviction and will. An assessment of Gregory's policies must be given within the general history of the eleventh-century reform and from the perspective of his fascination with and devotion to the Roman church and the papal office. Both of these corruptions were symptomatic of the degree to which, during centuries of invasion and turmoil, the spiritual goals of the Church had been subordinated to family, proprietary, and political interests.
Since these refused to submit voluntarily and tried to assert their traditional independence, his papacy is full of struggles against the higher ranks of the clergy. At the election, the papal legates present observed the appearance of neutrality, and Gregory himself sought to maintain this attitude during the following years. Then, on the capture of Rome, he abandoned the city to his troops, and the popular indignation evoked by his act brought about Gregory's exile. On the other hand, a large extent of the English church was left to the government of William I and Archbishop of. When discussing the biography of Pope Gregory… Popes The Protestant Reformation marked a time of great religious, social and political upheaval.
But this escort had not appeared when he received the news of the Henry's arrival. Gregory was neither a canon lawyer nor a theologian, although he was concerned with both areas, and he insisted that he was not an innovator. A nation consists of a common culture, being financially powerful, and unified. Thus Gregory, as a politician wanting to achieve some result, was driven in practice to adopt a different standpoint. Therefore, all Christians owed him absolute and unquestioned obedience. Because of the claims that Gregory made, particularly those detailing the relation between secular and ecclesiastical authority, medieval church-state relations had been fundamentally altered and could never again be seen as had been the case prior to 1075.
In this sense, his election hearkened back to the earliest centuries of the Church of Rome, regardless of later canonical legislation. Gregory was chiefly noted for his bitter and prolonged struggle with , emperor of. But at no period would he have dreamed of putting the two powers on an equal footing; the superiority of church to state was to him a fact which admitted of no discussion and which he had never doubted. Even though the wars were fought for religious reasons, the events that occurred…. Gregory, however, was rescued by the people of and on his release commanded the Germans to elect a new emperor, Rudolph, duke of. During Alexander's long reign he has been considered, perhaps with only slight exaggeration, as the power behind the papal throne.
He acknowledged the existence of the state as a dispensation of , described the coexistence of church and state as a divine ordinance, and emphasized the necessity of union between the and the imperium. Gregory's first attempts in foreign policy were towards a reconciliation with the Normans of ; in the end the two parties did not meet. France , by his practice of and the violence of his proceedings against the Church, provoked a threat of summary measures. Their nominee, , was elected anti- king on March 15, 1077. The controversy offers historians compelling vignettes such as the famous episode that occurred in January, 1077, at Canossa in northern Italy. England In , also derived benefits from this state of affairs. He strengthened papal authority by centralizing administration, tightened discipline, and revised the liturgy.
Various circles of ecclesiastical reform in the eleventh century were also adamant in condemning sexual incontinence among the higher orders of the clergy. Unfortunately the Catholic religious leaders didn't share in the renewal of morality. When the news of the Arab attacks on the Christians in the East filtered through to Rome, and the political embarrassments of the increased, he conceived the project of a great military expedition and exhorted the faithful to participate in recovering the — foreshadowing the. Two dramatic events may be singled out for mention. Intimately connected with these developments was the gradual extension of lay control, royal or aristocratic, over ecclesiastical appointments, a control symbolized by the ceremony of investiture, by which the lay ruler conferred Church office on the chosen nominee. Feast day: May 25 Gregory I n Saint, known as Gregory the Great.
It was debated at the time — and remains debated by historians — whether this extraordinary outburst in favor of Hildebrand by clergy and people was wholly spontaneous or could have been the result of some pre-concerted arrangements. Click the link for more information. At the same time they decided to invite Gregory to to decide the conflict. Gregory maintained that he had the right to remove Henry's kingship and to release his subjects from their oaths of loyalty. Gregorian Reform The dominant concern of the reforming movement had long been with the twin corruptions of simony the buying and selling of ecclesiastical office and clerical marriage, which was common despite its prohibition by ancient disciplinary regulations in the Latin Church. Certainly, the mode of his election was highly criticized by his opponents. Upon his elevation to the Roman bishopric, Hildebrand began to work more aggressively to reform the morality of the church and clergy by issuing decrees against simony the buying and selling of clerical offices , clerical participation in sexual activity, and lay investiture conferring of authority to a church official by a secular prince or landowner.
Otto I, son of the Henry I, Duke of Saxony was able to seize a large amount of land from the east of Elbe River, comprising Croatia, the Czech Republic, Poland, all the way to North Italy and parts of southern France. He was said to be of humble origins. Bruno of Toul and became administrator of the Patrimony of Peter see Papal States, Ital. In short, the living arrangements of canons were to be scarcely distinguishable from those of monks. As a youth he was sent to study in Rome, where, according to some unconfirmed sources, his uncle was abbot of a monastery on the. To make matters worse, Rudolf of Swabia died on 16 October of the same year.
To this Gregory added the further conviction that the papal primacy of jurisdiction in the universal church—involving also for him an inexactly defined superiority to all temporal rulers—was no longer to be minimized or gainsaid. Robinson, of Germany Cambridge, England: Press, 1999. Leo sent Hildebrand as his to in in the wake of the controversy created by. Gregory was convinced that the pope was the living successor and representative of St. This forgery had introduced the concept of , with poorly defined functions designed to protect bishops from interference by their superiors, the archbishops.
Apart from the court of Matilda of Tuscany, where his lived on, Gregory was soon forgotten, and he was not canonized until 1606. The theory undergirding this aspect of the ceremony was that of the forged , an 8th-century document that figured prominently in the new collections that were compiled at that time in Rome and elsewhere. Gregory, however, insisted as a necessary preliminary that Henry should appear before a council and do penance. First Crusade Origins In the 7th cent. Peter, inherits a commission from Christ to rule over the church.