The extremists or the aggressive nationalists believed that success could be achieved through bold means. This led the government to reverse its policy towards the congress, Dufferin ridiculed it as representing only a microscopic minority of the people. That is why despite their high idealism, they failed to create a solid mass base for their movement. The entire country protested against this attack on the liberties of the people. Anandacharlu 1892 — Allahabad — W.
When the Government threatened to take to disciplinary action against the students, the national leaders advocated national Universities independent of Government control. The Prince of Wales was to visit India in 1906. In fact, the Calcutta session was a win for the extremist because they compelled the Moderates to pass a resolution of all the four important planks. Their method was to send prayers and petitions, to make speeches and publish articles. The basic objectives of the early nationalist leaders were to lay the foundations of a secular and democratic national movement, to polticize and politically educate the people, to form the headquarters of the movement that is to form an all-India leadership group, and to develop and propagate an anti- colonial nationalist ideology. The Quit India Movement or the August Revolution marked a new era in the history of Indian National Movement. He was called father of Indian unrest by Valentine Chixole.
They had imparted the necessary political training to Indian people. In the last post we have read about the foundation and first session of. The humiliating treatment meted out to Indians in British colonies especially in South Africa created anti- British feelings. He believed that efforts must be made to satisfy the ambitions of this class. He was sentenced for 18 months imprisonment for supporting Chaplekar Brothers.
They were typically younger and did not believe in the soft and persuasive approach of the moderate leaders. They not only boycotted the British goods but also boycotted government services, titles and honours. Their first achievement was the separate electorates for the Muslims in the Minto-Morley reforms. His regime was full of missions, omissions and commissions. In his struggle against the racist authorities of South Africa, Gandhi evolved the technique of Satyagraha based on truth and nonviolence. .
Swadeshi, Boycott and National Education suddenly became the battle cries of a resurgent nationalism. Even Mahatma Gandhi later on adopted these very techniques of the Extremists. The worst and most-hated aspect of Curzon? The Moderates, encouraged by the news that council reforms were on the anvil, decided to tone down the Calcutta programme. The Extremists thought that the people had been aroused and the battle for freedom had begun. Wanted more Indians in the administration and not to an end of British rule. He was an important figure in the Swadeshi movement — advocating goods manufactured in India against foreign products.
The two Leagues cooperated with each other as well with the Congress and the Muslim League in putting their demand for home rule. Some of the notable leaders of the early congress were Dada Bhai Naoroji, Pheroz Shah Mehta, M. The militant nationalists revived the memories of the Vedic past of the Hindus, the great phase of the regimes of Asoka and Chandragupta, the heroic deeds of Rana Pratap and Shivaji, the epic patriotism of Rani Laxmibai. The period from 1905 was known as the era of extremism in the Indian National Movement. Special institutions were set up to impart education as per the needs of the nation. The word swaraj was mentioned for the first time, but its connotation was not speit out, which left the field open for differing interpretations by the Moderates and the Extremists. They were not able to see that their outlook and methods, which had served a real purpose in the past, were no longer adequate.
This was Surat Split of 1907. Majumdar it was a master strategy to destroy the nascent nationalism in Bengal. The Russia-Japanese war of 1904-5 in which Japan defeated the European power Russia. The Moderates were loyal to the British Government. The Moderates were no less willing to Part Company with the Extremists.
For Sri Aurobindo, nationalism was not a mere political or economic cry; it was rather the innermost hunger of his whole soul for the rebirth in him and through men like him, the whole India, the ancient culture of the Hindustan and its pristine purity and nobility. However, in a case of mistaken identity, Bhagat Singh was signalled to shoot on the appearance of John P. The repressive policy of Lord Curzon was the most potent cause of political discontent. Voluntary associations were set up for usual sanitation, preventing police duties, and for natural calamities. This was too bitter a pill for the Moderates to sallow. But, in the long run, the split did not prove useful to either party.