This does not deny that there may be practical motives for crime. Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication. When people are exposed to opposing ideas on what is normal or ethical, particularly early in life, the result is an internal conflict that is shaped by their social relations. Harvard law review, 40 March : 798-800. American journal of sociology, 35 July : 93-99. Sutherland, a sociologist and professor most of his life, developed Differential Association theory to explain how it was that criminals came to commit acts of deviant behavior. Sutherland pages 190-194 : Sutherland, like many of the leading sociologists, as already noted, came to sociology from another field.
But Sutherland pointed out that people of the upper class also committed crimes and that, in fact, those came at a greater financial loss to society. The criminology of Edwin Sutherland. The objective of criminology is the development of a body of general and verified and principles and of other types of knowledge regarding this process of law, crime, and reaction to crime. Gries and james Ford eds. When people become criminal, they do so not only because of contacts with criminal patterns but also because of isolation from anticriminal patterns. Labeled persons may include drug addicts, alcoholics, criminals, delinquents, prostitutes, sex offenders, retarded people, and psychiatric patients, to mention a few.
Papers and proceedings of the twentieth annual meeting of the American sociological society. In other words, it was not that people who committed crimes were somehow biologically deficient but that they learned to commit crimes. Mixed control is typically maintained by establishing a set of values and beliefs or norms and traditions. Differential association theory explains why any individual forwards toward deviant behavior. Moreover, control theory is met with some resistance for its compliance to a conservative view of the broader social order. They escape into a non-productive, non-striving lifestyle. Sutherland Differential Association Theory Sutherland asserts that the excess of definitions favorable to deviance over definitions unfavorable to violation of law enforces a person become a deviant while associating with other persons.
Negatively, this means that the learning of criminal behavior is not restricted to the process of imitation. Associations vary in quality by their frequency, duration, priority, and intensity. In contrast to their account, which identified long lists of factors which might contribute to crime causation, Sutherland aimed to build an integrated and sociological theory which stressed that crime was basically a learned phenomenon. Socialization is important in producing conformity to social rules, and it is when this conformity is broken that deviance occurs. I should like to be featured as a sociologist who was interested in the general theory of society, and attempted to assist in developing this general theory by concentrated study on criminal behavior.
The current state of differential association theory. The greater the frequency, duration, and intensity of their immersion in deviant environments, the more likely it is that they will become deviant. This is the principle of differential association. This last principle asserts that even those criminals, who rationalize their behaviors as trying to fulfill basic needs, are not above reproach. In Sutherland's definition, white-collar crimes are committed by people who are part of a class generally considered 'respectable. His main contributions include Unemployment and Public Employment Agencies, 1913; Criminology, 1924; An Ecological Study of Crime and Delinquency in Bloomington, 1937; Principles of Criminology, 1939; Twenty Thousand Homeless Men with Locke , 1936; The Professional Thief, 1937; White Collar Crime, 1949.
Although it was frequently attacked for being too general and failing to deal adequately with individualistic crimes like embezzlement, the proponents of the theory responded by making it ever more refined and testable, as well as applying it to a wider range of individual deviant phenomena, often using the argument to clarify the social nature of even solitary crimes. The differential association theory was one of the first theories of criminology to deny the traditional ways of looking at crime. Higher degree of social disorganization 2. For example, the theory was judged by critics to be invalid because not everyone who had come into contact with criminals became criminal as a result. As a result, the police always took action against the Roughnecks, but never against the Saints. The main point of this version was that the conflict of cultures and people having different values is a major cause of crime because what is deemed appropriate or acceptable to some people is usually not seen as such by the rest of the population. Differential association theory is the most talked-about of the learning theories of deviance.
Priority seems to be important principally through its selective influence and intensity has to do with such things as the prestige of the source of a criminal or anticriminal pattern and with emotional reactions related to the association. For example, many convicted sexual assailants admit that the first time they committed sexual assault they felt guilty. Web Sites: Introduction to criminological theory. Although family and peer groups tend to be important differential association, other social context such as schools can be equally important to learning normative definitions. The second real problem was that it left the learning process unspecified.
My interest in criminal behavior is not in the control of crime, but rather in the light that an intensive study of this behavior may throw on society. A social role is a set of expectations we have about a behavior. This approach helps explain not only juvenile gang behavior but also how peer cliques on high school campuses have such a powerful influence on people's behavior. Images of deviance and social control. They are similar to respiration, which is necessary for any behavior, but which does not differentiate criminal from noncriminal behavior. For example, Mark Warr found parental influence as a barrier and peer influence as an instigator.
The theory was highly influential in and delinquency research, making the explanation of crime largely a matter of ordinary learning processes, rather than biological predisposition. For example, in some parts of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Muslim Africa, women are circumcised. However, the date of retrieval is often important. The expected behavior was changing and people did not know what to expect from each other. Burgess and Akers called their theory the Differential- Reinforcement theory.
According to control theory, weak social systems result in deviant behavior. Differential Association Theory Differential Association Theory is one of Sutherland's major contributions to the field of criminology. Differential association theory is one of the Chicago School criminological theories that embraced a sociological approach to analyzing criminality. I conclude that the usual attribution of cultural deviance assumptions and explanation to differential association is based on misinterpretations. It is learned through the interaction with other people in a process of communication. Let's look at another example. Edwin Sutherland coined the phrase differential association to address the issue of how people learn deviance.