Yet when I considered, that bestowyng vpon your Lordship the first vewe of this mine impression a feat of mine owne simple facultie it could not scypher her Maiesties honour or prerogatiue in the guift, nor yet the Authour of his thanks, and seeing the thing it selfe to be a deuice of some noueltie which commonly giueth euery good thing a speciall grace , and a noueltie so highly tending to the most worthy prayses of her Maiesties most excellent name deerer to you I dare conceiue then any worldly thing besides , mee thought I could not deuise to haue presented your Lordship any gift more agreeable to your appetite, or fitter for my vocation and abilitie to bestow, your Lordship beyng learned and a louer of learning, my present a Booke, and my selfe a printer alwaies ready and desirous to be at your Honourable commaundement. And this fantasy may be resembled to a glass as hath been said, whereof there be many tempers and manner of makings, as the perspectives do acknowledge, for some be false glasses and show things otherwise than they be indeed, and others right as they be indeed, neither fairer nor fouler, nor greater nor smaller. His late losse the Wiueless Higs in order Eurywhere bewailes to friends, to strangers; Tels them how by night a yongster armed Saught his Wife as hand in hand he held her With drawne sword to force; she cryed; he mainely Roring ran for ayde, but ah returning Fled was with the prize the beawty-forcer, Whome in vain he seeks, he threats, he followes. . In What Forme of Poesie Vertue in the Inferiour Sort Was Commended. Iust beguiler, Kindest loue, yet only chastest, Royall in thy smooth denyals, Frowning or demurely smiling, Still my pure delight. They are deriu'd out of our owne naturall numbers as neere the imitation of the Greekes and Latines, as our heauy sillables will permit.
Bolton, whose Hypocritica was written in the reign of James I. The first Chapter, intreating of numbers in generall. The like impure errors haue in time of rudenesse bene vsed in the Latine toong, as the Carmina prouerbialia can witnesse, and many other such reuerend bables. Euax, king of Arabia, wrote a booke of precious stones in verse, Prince Auicenna of Phisicke and Philosophie, Alphonsus, king of Spaine, his Astronomicall Tables, Almansor, a king of Marrocco, diuerse Philosophicall workes: and by their regal example our late soueraigne Lord, king Henry the eight, wrate a booke in defence of his faith, then perswaded that it was the true and Apostolicall doctrine; though it hath appeared otherwise since, yet his honour and learned zeale was nothing lesse to be allowed. But the better to confirme and expresse these rules, I will set downe a short Poeme in Licentiate Iambicks, which may giue more light to them that shall hereafter imitate these numbers. And as this was vsed in the greatest and gayest matters of Princes and Popes by the idle inuention of Monasticall men then raigning al in their superlatiue, so did euery scholer and secular clerke or versifier, when he wrote any short poeme or matter of good lesson, put it in ryme; whereby it came to passe that all your old Prouerbes and common sayinges, which they would haue plausible to the reader and easie to remember and beare away, were of that sorte as these. Wherefore, now that we haue said what is the matter of Poesie, we will declare the manner and formes of poemes vsed by the auncients.
Could I catch that Nimble trayter Skornefull Lawra, Swift foote Lawra, Soone then would I Seeke auengement; Whats th'auengement? Students will now more likely be examining an art of English poetry and not just a sociology of it in the wonderful prose argument in this historicized, yet aesthetically aware edition of the text. In 1585 he received reparation from the for alleged wrongs suffered at the hands of his relations. He first taught number and true harmonye; Nor is the lawrell his for rime bequeathd. The like we may say when silent and melting consonants meete together, as adrest, redrest, oprest, represt, retriu'd, and such like. Poetics in the Art 6.
T He Dimeter so called in the former Chapter I intend next of all to handle, because it seems to be a part of the Iambick which is our most naturall and auncient English verse. Againe, though I said peremptorily before, that the third, and fift place of our licentiate Iambick must alwayes hold an Iambick foote, yet I will shew you example in both places where a Tribrack may be very formally taken, and first in the third place, Some trade in Barbary, some in Turkey trade. Though as I said before, the naturall breathing place of our English Iambick verse is in the last sillable of the second foote, as our Trochy after the manner of the Latine Heroick and Iambick rests naturally in the first of the third foote: yet no man is tyed altogether to obserue this rule, but he may alter it, after the iudgement of his eare, which Poets, Orators, and Musitiens of all men ought to haue most excellent. These numbers which by my long obseruation I have found agreeable with the nature of our sillables, I haue set forth for the benefit of our language, which I presume the learned will not only imitate but also polish and amplifie with their owne inuentions. Words of three sillables for the most part are deriued from words of two sillables, and from them take the quantity of their first sillable, as fl r sh, fl r sh ng long; h lie, h l nes short; but mi in m ser being long hinders not the first of m sery to be short, because the sound of the i is a little altred. These were the verses: Nocte pluit tota, redeunt spectacula mane; Diuisum imperium cum Ioue Caesar habet.
We are all in their debt. None canst thou long refuse, nor long affect, But turn'st feare with hopes, sorrow with delight, Delaying, and deluding eu'ry way Those whose eyes are once with thy beawty chain'd. The first was our Iambick pure and licentiate. Faiths pure shield, the Christian Diana, Englands glory crownd with all deuinenesse, Liue long with triumphs to blesse thy people At thy sight triumphing. And before him his uncle and father adoptive Julius Caesar was not ashamed to publish under his own name, his Commentaries of the French and Britain wars.
Thence it is that the writers of English heroicks do so often repeate Amyntas, Olympus, Auernus, Erinnis, and suchlike borrowed words, to supply the defect of our hardly intreated Dactile. For in any writer vntruth and flatterie are counted most great reproches. Goe then, but slowly, till your steps be firme; Tell them that pitty or peruersely skorne Poore English poesie as the slaue to rime, You are those loftie numbers that reuiue Triumphs of Princes and sterne tragedies: And learne henceforth tattend those happy sprights Whose bounding fury height and waight affects. Besides the good and bad of Princes is more exemplarie, and thereby of greater moment then the priuate persons. Henry Earle of Surrey and Sir Thomas Wyat, betweene whom I finde very litle difference, I repute them as before for the two chief lanternes of light to all others that haue since employed their pennes vpon English Poesie: their conceits were loftie, their stiles stately, their conueyance cleanely, their termes proper, their meetre sweete and well proportioned, in all imitating very naturally and studiously their Maister Francis Petrarcha.
Wherefore the first rule that is to be obserued is the nature of the accent, which we must euer follow. Iambick: Trochaick: Sponde: as reuenge. Therefore while we may yea alwaies if it could be , to reioyce and take our pleasures in vertuous and honest sort, it is not only allowable but also necessary and very naturall to man. By them was laid the foundation of all humane wisdome, and from them the knowledge of all antiquitie is deriued. Rauing warre, begot In the thirstye sands Of the Lybian Iles, Wasts our emptye fields; What the greedye rage Of fell wintrye stormes Could not turne to spoile, Fierce Bellona now Hath laid desolate, Voyd of fruit, or hope.
All such as haue a double consonant lengthning them, as w rre, b rre, st rre, f rre, m rre, appear to me rather long then any way short. After whom followed John Lydgate the monke of Bury, and that nameles, who wrote the Satyre called Piers Plowman, next him followed Harding the Chronicler, then in king Henry th' eight times Skelton, I wot not for what great worthines surnamed the Poet Laureat. But words of two sillables ending with a rising accent in y or ye, as denye, descrye, or in ue, as ensue, or in ee, as foresee, or in oe, as forgoe, are long in their last sillables, vnlesse a vowell begins the next word. Words of three sillables for the most part are deirued from words of two sillables, and from them take the quantity of their first sillable, as florish, florishing long, holie holines short, but mi, in miser being long, hinders not the first of misery to be short, because the sound of the i is a little altred. His illustrative anecdotes enable us to watch European courtiers negotiating their social and political relationships with one another as well as with rulers and social inferiors. Wherein it is demonstratiuely prooued, and by example confirmed, that the English toong will receiue eight seuerall kinds of numbers, proper to it selfe, which are all in this booke set forth, and were neuer before this time by any man attempted. Right so no kinde of argument in all the Oratorie craft doth better perswade and more vniuersally satisfie then example, which is but the representation of old memories, and like successes happened in times past.
Th eger thriftye hinde, Whose rude toyle reuiud Our skie-blasted earth, Himselfe is but earth, Left a skorne to fate Through seditious armes: And that soile, alive Which he duly nurst, Which him duly fed, Dead his body feeds: Yet not all the glebe His tuffe hands manurd Now one turfe affords His poore funerall. Deriuatiues hold the quantities of their primatiues, as deuout, deuotelie, prophane, prophanelie, and so do the compositiues, as deseru'd, undeseru'd. So as it is hard to find in these dayes of noblemen or gentlemen any good Mathematician, or excellent Musitian, or notable Philosopher, or els a cunning Poet, because we find few great Princes much delighted in the same studies. Therewith his reports to teares he turneth, Peirst through with the louely Dames remembrance; Straight he sighes, he raues, his haire he teareth, Forcing pitty still by fresh lamenting. All in sattin Oteny will be suted, Beaten sattin as by chance he cals it Oteny sure will haue the bastinado. The Iambick verse in like manner being yet made a little more licentiate, that it may thereby the neerer imitate our common talke, will excellently serue for Comedies; and then may we vse a Sponde in the fift place, and in the third place any foote except a Trochy, which neuer enters into our Iambick verse but in the first place, and then with his caueat of the other feete which must of necessitie follow.
The example of the Sponde after the Trochy. For though we accent the second of Trumpington short, yet is it naturally long, and so of necessity must be held of euery composer. The length of lines may alternate in patterns that support the rhyme scheme, and so increase the band. Some eares accustomed altogether to the fatnes of rime may perhaps except against the cadences of these numbers; but let any man iudicially examine them, and he shall finde they close of themselues so perfectly that the help of rime were not only in them superfluous but also absurd. New York: Liberal Arts, 1957.