The state-specific results also suggest that not a single state is exactly taking five years to produce a primary graduate Table 18. This is very common in rural India. Because of financial difficulties compulsion could not be enforced strictly in the past to avoid huge wastage. In view of this, districts proposed over ambitious proposals. So there is no wastage. The qualification requirement to become a primary or upper primary school teacher is generally 10 years of general education followed by one or two years of pre-service training.
Rather, the capacity to conduct school mapping is not available both at the state and district level. The twelve major problems are: 1. The teaching of science and mathematics has to be vitalized. Various studies have been undertaken to know the causes of wastage and stagnation. She has started going to play school since 24 June 2018. The scheme is recently revised and named as Scheme of Alternative and Innovative Education. The private sector is making rapid expansion in this area but hardly there is any system of regulation.
The hike in achievement in language and mathematics varies widely ranging from 1 per cent to 44 per cent for Grade I. Details of women mobilisation and programme agendas and role of the National Resource Group of Mahila Samakhya are provided. While the proportion of poor in the rural areas declined from 56. But there is an inherent contradiction between quantity and quality, and education is not an exception to this rule. For the first time in the recent past, transition rate for girls in 1997-98 was higher than boys by 2 percentage points. About 38,000 alternative schooling centres of different types have also been set-up and about 75,000 more are planned.
Only primary graduates can obtain admission in upper primary classes. Keeping in view the educational facilities available in the country at that time, the goal was far too ambitious to achieve within a short span of ten years. So she is still in playschool since Feb 2020. Thereafter many Constitutional amendments were made with intent to give a boost to elementary education in India. The age-specific enrolment ratio suggests that it was 69 and 72 per cent respectively among the children of age groups 6-10 and 11-13 years. The role of the local bodies is no less important in respect of spreading universal elementary education.
Nearly 93 per cent employment was in the unorganised sector, which fluctuates with the overall economic situations. The pupil-teacher ratio is at present 42: 1 at the primary and 37:1 at the upper primary level of education. That is why we still have single-teacher schools. In these districts, it would be the first attempt to develop plans with the active involvement of local people in a participatory planning mode. Kerala, one of the most educationally advanced states of the country, experienced a very low growth rate, throughout the period during 1980-81 to 1995-96. So they attached undue importance to secondary and higher education at the cost of elementary education. The achievement is also because of the fact that during 1990's, a number of innovative projects and programmes were initiated, which is quite visible in enrolment and drop out trends analyzed in the subsequent sections.
Interestingly, private education has also gone up in the country. Education in India follows a uniform structure of school education which is known as the 10+2 system. The education of girls s far behind that of boys at the elementary stage particularly in rural Leas. At present the retention rates at the primary and elementary levels are 60 and 43 per cent respectively. The curriculum should be based on local needs and facilities in the schools. This otherwise suggests a dropout rate of 40 and 57 per cent respectively at the primary and upper primary level. This is demonstrated through irregular student attendance, low learning levels, and dropouts.
Required enrolment within and outside the age group is then added to obtain the net additional requirement of enrolment in 2007. Compared to primary level, the growth in enrolment at the upper primary level is much impressive and substantial but is not adequate to attain the status of universal enrolment. It is expected that from the next year onwards the entire amount for elementary education would be shown under one single programme head i. All these things require careful planning and suitable administrative measures. The chief among them are the lack of proper articulation between education and life and the poor capacity of the schools to attract and hold students. A few pilot projects may be tried in each district for a short time in order to gain experience before the scheme is launched on a nation-wide basis.
Therefore if government is spending only on higher education that is not going to change the status of child because higher education is all about colleges. Particularly, the states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal need immediate attention where the level of efficiency is very low and graduates are taking more years than ideally required. Poverty is reflected in poor quality of life, hunger, malnutrition, deprivation, illiteracy and consequent low level of human development. In addition, there may be a few non-formal education centres and unrecognized schools; also that impart both primary as well as upper primary education. In the phase two districts 1995-97 also, an increase of 2. Its duties also include the prescription of curriculum and courses of study, preparation and effective distribution of text books, training of teachers etc. So if child is 5 years old and live in a family which is below poverty line then the child needs primary education not higher education.